Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Medication Use Among Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

Graziano Onder, Roberto Bernabei, Rosa Liperoti, Harriet Finne-Soveri, Albert Lukas, Michael D. Denkinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To explore antipsychotic (AP) medications and physical restraint use and their effects on physical function and cognition in older nursing home residents. Methods: This retrospective cohort studied involved 532 residents with dementia from 57 nursing homes participating in the Services and Health for Elderly in Long-Term Care study. Poisson log regression models explored the effect of physical restraint and/or AP medication use on cognitive or functional decline at 6 months. Results: Physical restraint use was associated with a higher risk of both functional and cognitive decline compared with AP medication use alone. These risks were highest among residents receiving both AP medications and physical restraints, suggesting additive effects. Discussion: Physical restraint use, and even more strongly, concurrent physical restraint and AP medication use, is related to function and cognitive decline in nursing home residents with dementia. Antipsychotic use is cautioned, but these results suggest physical restraint use is potentially more risky.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184.e9-184.e14
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Activities of daily living
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Antipsychotics
  • Cognition
  • Dementia
  • Female
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nursing (all)2901 Nursing (miscellaneous)
  • Nursing Homes
  • Nursing homes
  • Physical restraint
  • Restraint, Physical
  • Retrospective Studies


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