Phenotype variability of autoinflammatory disorders in the pediatric patient: a pictorial overview

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Disruption of innate immunity leading to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction is the basilar footprint of autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), ranging from rare hereditary monogenic diseases to a large number of common chronic inflammatory conditions in which there is a simultaneous participation of multiple genetic components and environmental factors, sometimes combined with autoimmune phenomena and immunodeficiency.Whatever their molecular mechanism, hereditary AIDs are caused by mutations in regulatory molecules or sensors proteins leading to dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines or cytokine-inducing transcription factors, fever, elevation of acute phase reactants, and a portfolio of manifold inflammatory signs which might occur in a stereotyped manner, mostly with overactivity or misactivation of different inflammasomes. Symptoms might overlap in the pediatric patient, obscuring the final diagnosis of AIDs and delaying the most appropriate treatment. Actually, the fast-paced evolution of scientific knowledge has led to recognize or reclassify an overgrowing number of multifactorial diseases, which share the basic pathogenetic mechanisms with AIDs. The wide framework of classic hereditary periodic fevers, AIDswith prominent skin involvement, disorders of the ubiquitinproteasome system, defects of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and also idiopathic nonhereditary febrile syndromes occurring in children is herein presented. Interleukin-1 dependence of these diseases or involvement of other predominating molecules is also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Evidence-Based Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Autoinflammation


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