Craniosynostosis (CS) is the second most prevalent craniofacial congenital malformation due to the premature fusion of skull sutures. CS care requires surgical treatment of variable complexity, aimed at resolving functional and cosmetic defects resulting from the skull growth constrain. Despite significant innovation in the management of CS, morbidity and mortality still exist. Residual cranial defects represent a potential complication and needdedicated management to drive a targeted bone regeneration while modulating suture ossification. To this aim, existing techniques are rapidly evolving and include the implementation of novel biomaterials, 3D printing and additive manufacturing techniques, and advanced therapies based on tissue engineering. This review aims at providing an exhaustive and up‐to‐date overview of the strategies in use to correct these congenital defects, focusing on the technological advances in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering implemented in pediatric surgical skull reconstruction, i.e., biodegradable bone fixation systems, biomimetic scaffolds, drug delivery systems, and cell‐based approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2649-N/A
Number of pages35
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Biomaterials
  • Calvarial bone reconstruction
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Delivery systems
  • Innovative biotechnologies
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells
  • Personalized medicine
  • Tissue engineering


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