Neonatal causes of fever are a major source of concern for clinicians. If fever is combined with organ-specific sterile inflammatory manifestations the suspicion of autoinflammatory disorders should be considered, and the list of such conditions starting in the neonatal period includes chronic infantile neurological cutaneous articular syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, otulipenia, STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy and Blau syndrome. Other causes of noninfectious fever that can rarely occur in newborns are Kawasaki disease, Behçet’s disease, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Diagnosis of these exceptionally rare disorders is challenging for neonatologists. An early recognition of these complex diseases might lead to use more specific or rational drugs preventing permanent consequences. This review focuses on the rarest causes of fever occurring in the neonatal age with the aim of portraying many protean clinical pictures associated with fever and reviewing the potential available treatments.
- autoinflammatory disorders
- organ-specific sterile inflammatory manifestations