Non-Fluoroscopic Localization of an Amagnetic Catheter in a Realistic Torso Phantom by Magnetocardiographic and Body Surface Potential Mapping

Riccardo Fenici, K Pesola, M Mäkijärvi, J Nenonen, U Teener, Peter Fenici, T. Katila

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of multichannel magnetocardiographic (MCG) and body surface potential mapping (BSPM) in localizing three-dimensionally the tip of an amagnetic catheter for electrophysiology without fluoroscopy. An amagnetic catheter, specially designed to produce dipolar sources of different geometry without magnetic disturbances, was placed inside a physical thorax phantom at two different depths, 38 mm and 88 mm below the frontal surface of the phantom. 67 MCG and 123 BSPM signals generated by the 10 mA current stimuli fed into the catheter were then recorded in a magnetically shielded room. Non-invasive localization of the tip of the catheter was computed from measured MCG and BSPM data using an equivalent current dipole source in a phantom-specific boundary element torso model. The mean 3D error of the MCG localization at the closer level was 2±1 mm. The corresponding error calculated from the BSPM measurements was 4±1mm. At the deeper level, the mean localization errors of MCG and BSPM were 7±4 mm and 10±2mm, respectively. The results showed that MCG and BSPM localization of the tip of the amagnetic catheter is accurate and reproducible provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. In our study, the MCG method was found to be more accurate than BSPM. This suggests that both methods could be developed towards a useful clinical tool for non- fluoroscopic three-dimensional electroanatomical imaging during electrophysiological studies, thus minimizing radiation exposure to patients and operators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2485-2491
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Amagnetic catheter
  • Body surface potential mapping
  • Boundary Element Method
  • Magnetocardiography
  • Non-fluoroscopic imaging
  • Phantom measureents


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