Nietzsche e i tramonti della fraternità

Translated title of the contribution: [Autom. eng. transl.] Nietzsche and the sunsets of fraternity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

[Autom. eng. transl.] Nietzsche's critique of fraternity is a captivating test to reflect on the common human being, on its degenerations and its possible redemptions. Nietzsche's vehement controversies revolve around the deconstruction of the lying logic with which the men of the West have built up their images of fraternity over the centuries. His invectives definitively break down all the false myths of fraternal sentiment - God, blood, bourgeois morality - destined for their nihilistic sunset. A destruction that gives you thinking: the Nietzschean accusation suggests some tracks to follow for an auroral rethinking of fraternity. Fraternity represents one of the privileged targets of Nietzsche's criticism of Western tradition. In its philosophy it never gives itself without controversy: every time Nietzsche brings to the stage the fraternal feeling is always to launch some dry reproach to man and society. In the Nietzschean lexicon, "" fraternity "" is one of those "great words" which are highly harmful to the development of mankind - like "freedom", "justice", "equality of rights", "truth" ", "Warning signs" of the "nihilistic catastrophe" towards which the entire western civilization is inexorably sailing. The attack launched by Nietzsche starts from the dawn of fraternity and progressively touches all its incarnations in the history of humanity. The fraternal ideal finds its origin before God, with Christianity, and then takes root in civil society through the bloody French Revolution. Even without bloodshed, the violent fraternal instinct of the revolution persisted during the nineteenth century, within the city of bourgeois men. The fraternity of the market square uniforms all those who are part of it, giving life to the flock. For Nietzsche, moreover, the fraternal feeling that coagulates the members of the herd is never original, but always stems from a resentful mystification: the fear and the setting aside of everything that is individual. The "brotherhood of peoples", he states lapidally in Aurora's aphorism 132, is one of the possible variations of "totality" in which "the individual sacrifices himself" for the economy of the whole. At first glance, therefore, it seems almost natural that for a Nietzsche detractor of the Christian religion, a nostalgic reactionary of the ancient nobility and a harsh critic of mass society, fraternity is to be rejected without appeal. But, while blaming these conceptions of fraternity so much, Nietzsche is unable to do without a certain "fraternal pathos". While criticizing the Christian, revolutionary and bourgeois idea of fraternity and unhinging their motives - God, the blood, the flock - he always carries with him a profound fraternal inclination, both in his life and in his philosophy. After all, Nietzschean thought, autobiographically entrusted to Zarathustra's mouth, cannot remain relegated to the lonely mountains where it was born. The adventure of the prophet embodies a physiological and suffering search for "brothers", with whom to unite to share their message and their existence. Suffering generated by the bitter awareness of failure. Zarathustra's courageous attempt to track down a community of brothers who can welcome his thought finds its denial in the bud. On the other hand, only the bourgeois men of the flock live in the modern metropolis. However, Nietzsche manages to oppose to this gregarious fraternity only the escape from the city, or the exaltation of the individual - an elite fraternity -. Two ways out that are never entirely conclusive. The problem of fraternity is not deeply touched, but only temporarily circumvented. The
Translated title of the contribution[Autom. eng. transl.] Nietzsche and the sunsets of fraternity
Original languageItalian
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalSCIENZE E RICERCHE
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Nietzsche
  • fraternità

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