Recent evidence supports the concept that progression of chronic heart failure (CHF) depends upon an imbalance of catabolic forces over the anabolic drive. In this regard, multiple hormonal deficiency syndrome (MHDS) significantly has impacts upon CHF progression, and is associated with a worse clinical status and increased mortality. The T.O.S.CA. (Trattamento Ormonale nello Scompenso CArdiaco; Hormone Therapy in Heart Failure) Registry (clinicaltrial.gov = NCT02335801) tests the hypothesis that anabolic deficiencies reduce survival in a large population of mild-to-moderate CHF patients. The T.O.S.CA. Registry is a prospective multicenter observational study coordinated by “Federico II” University of Naples, and involves 19 centers situated throughout Italy. Thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone , and insulin are measured at baseline and every year for a patient-average follow-up of 3 years. Subjects with CHF are divided into two groups: patients with one or no anabolic deficiency, and patients with two or more anabolic deficiencies at baseline. The primary endpoint is the composite of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. Secondary endpoints include the composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization, the composite of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, and change of VO2 peak. Patient enrollment started in April 2013, and was completed in July 2017. Demographics and main clinical characteristics of enrolled patients are provided in this article. Detailed cross-sectional results will be available in late 2018. The T.O.S.CA. Registry represents the most robust prospective observational trial on MHDS in the field of CHF. The study findings will advance our knowledge with regard to the intimate mechanisms of CHF progression and hopefully pave the way for future randomized clinical trials of single or multiple hormonal replacement therapies in CHF.
- Anabolic deficiency
- Chronic heart failure
- Heart failure metabolism
- Multiple hormonal deficiency syndrome