Luteolin belongs to the family of flavonoids, which have anti-inflammatory functions, potentially useful in a clinical context, particularly for patients suffering from cancer, neuropsychiatric disorders, inflammatory bowel conditions. This peculiarity has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine, for many different diseases. Its anti-inflammatory effects might be particularly relevant in cancer, with some studies reporting anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastatic, and apoptotic effects on cancer cells by luteolin and other flavonoids. In this article, we analyze the anti-inflammatory role of luteolin, discussing the pathways it may act on. We will then discuss the possible role of microbiota in inflammatory modulation by luteolin. Finally, the possible therapeutic applications of luteolin's anti-inflammatory properties will be analyzed, with a particular focus on cancer.