Lifestyle in urology: Cancer

Emilio Sacco, Luigi Vaccarella, Riccardo Bientinesi, Carlo Gandi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The opportunity to prevent, to improve their prognosis, or even to cure uro-oncological diseases by modifying the lifestyle habits is a very modern topical subject and represents a great and fascinating challenge for the future. A PubMed and Web of Science databases search has been performed to review the published knowledge on most important lifestyle habits, such as smoking, physical activity, nutrition, sexual activity, and personal hygiene, highlighting modifiable factors influencing development and progression of urological cancers. Cigarette smoking has been historically established as risk factors for urothelial cancer, and an association with risk of renal cell carcinoma and worse prognosis of prostate cancer has been sufficiently demonstrated. Poor genital hygiene is a recognized risk factor for penile cancer. Furthermore, a convincing evidence has been found on the association between physical activity and both risk and prognosis of bladder and prostate cancer. Obesity is strongly associated with increased risk of developing lethal prostate cancer. An unequivocal evidence of a direct relationship between most of the other lifestyle habits and development of the uro-oncological diseases has not been found.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Bladder
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Urologic Neoplasms
  • cancer
  • diet
  • lifestyle
  • penile
  • physical activity
  • prostate
  • renal
  • tobacco
  • urothelial


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