Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a common complication in Parkinson disease. Pathogenic mechanisms include phasic stimulation of dopamine receptors, nonphysiological levodopa-to-dopamine conversion in serotonergic neurons, hyperactivity of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission, and overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopamine-releasing axons. Delay in initiating levodopa is no longer recommended, as dyskinesia development is a function of disease duration rather than cumulative levodopa exposure. We review current and in-development treatments for peak-dose dyskinesia but suggest that improvements in levodopa delivery alone may reduce its future prevalence. Ann Neurol 2018;84:797–811.
- Antiparkinson Agents
- Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
- Drug Administration Schedule
- Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced
- Parkinson Disease