OBJECTIVE: A still uncertain association between Vitamin D levels and HCV chronic liver diseases has been reported. Increased levels of serum-ree light chains (FLCs) and an altered k/λ FLC ratio correlate with Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis and/or B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in HCV-positive patients. We aimed to investigate the possible role of Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP), and FLCs levels as a tool for discriminating different stages of HCV- related MC and chronic liver diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five untreated patients were retrospectively enrolled and 21 healthy blood donors (HBD) were used as controls. Vitamin D, DBP, FLCs, and cryoglobulins levels were measured. Based on cryoglobulins, patients were divided in three subgroups (without cryoglobulins, type II, and type III). RESULTS: We didn’t find any significant differences in Vitamin D and DBP levels between HCV patients’ main groups and HBD. Serum FLCs levels were significantly higher in HCV patients than in HBD. FLCs ratio among patients’ subgroups did not reveal differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the presence of an increased serum level of FLCs in HCV patients and suggest that nor Vitamin D and DBP or FLC levels can be considered reliable biomarkers for discriminating different stages of HCV-associated chronic liver diseases and/or HCV-associated extrahepatic manifestation. We confirm that serological FLCs levels are significantly higher in patients than in HBD as a signature of B cell activation in course of HCV infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8506-8514
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Free light chains
  • HCV disorders
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D binding protein


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