The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a vast number ofmicroorganisms that are called as the microbiota. Each individual harbors a unique gut microbial composition, this composition evolves throughout the host’s lifetime and it is easily affected by internal or external changes. It has been shown that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host’s health and as this complex community has the ability to interact with each other and with the host’s immune system, the presence or absence of some major species can affect the homeostasis. Diet can be considered as one of the pivotal factors in modulating the functionality, integrity, and composition of the gut microbiota as the gastrointestinal tract is the first organ exposed to components of the diet. In this review,we have focused on the effects of polyphenols, key compounds of a healthy diet with several biological activities, on the gut microbial composition, their biotransformation by the gut microbiota, and the effect of their reciprocal interactions in human health and disease.
- biotransformation, gutmicrobiota, host health, polyphenols