Influence of wine-grape skin hardness on the kinetics of anthocyanin extraction

Fabrizio Torchio, Luca Rolle, Alessandra Ferrandino, Silvia Guidoni

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38 Citations (Scopus)


The main aim of this work was to study in a model, hydroalcoholic solution containing 12% of ethanol and with a pH of 3.20, the kinetics of anthocyanin extraction from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Nebbiolo berries of different skin hardness. This mechanical property was evaluated as the breaking skin force measured by Texture Analysis, a rapid and low-cost analytical technique. Using a TAxT2i Texture Analyzer, a puncture test was carried out on two groups of berries separated according to their density by flotation in order to obtain more homogenous samples and minimize the effect of different stages of ripening of the berries. Among the berries containing 242 ± 8 g/L of reducing sugars in the pulp juice, two groups of berries with different skin hardness were selected: soft (0.26 ± 0.04 N) and hard (0.47 ± 0.05 N). In our experimental conditions, at the end of maceration, the extracts from the higher skin hardness group showed the higher contents of total anthocyanin: +25 mg/L (+9.4%). The anthocyanin profile of extracts, obtained at different extraction times, showed no significant differences among the distribution of different anthocyanins. Only in the early phases of dissolution, did the extracts reveal a dissimilar anthocyanin profile and in the extracts of hard skins higher percentages of cyanidin and peonidin derivatives were present. Additionally, the evolution of skin mechanical properties from veraison to overripe and the influences of biotype on these parameters at harvest are reported in this work.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-261
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Food Properties
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Anthocyanin extractability
  • Barolo wine
  • Clones
  • Grapes ripeness
  • Nebbiolo
  • Skin mechanical properties
  • Texture analysis
  • Vitis vinifera L.


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