IL-36 receptor antagonist with special emphasis on IL-38.

Franco Pandolfi, Y. Shaik, G. Sabatino, G. Varvara, G. Murmura, A. Saggini, M. Rosati, F. Conti, E. Cianchetti, A. Caraffa, P. Antinolfi, G. Potalivo, R. Galzio, P. Conti, T. C. Theoharides

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12 Citations (Scopus)


IL-36 is another family member of IL-1 and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activates MAPK and NFkB pathways. IL-36 is a common mediator of innate and adaptive immune response and is inhibited by IL-36 receptor antagonist (RA). IL-36RA acts on IL-36 receptor ligand which exerts proinflammatory effect in vivo and in vitro. IL-38 binds to IL-36 receptor as does IL-36RA and has similar biological effects on immune cells. IL-38 is also a member of IL-1 cytokine and shares some characteristics of IL-1RA, binding the same IL-1 receptor type I. IL-38 plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, exerting protective effect in some autoimmune diseases. Both IL-38 and IL-36RA have an anti-inflammatory biological effect, however in some cases have contrary effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-36
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • IL-36 receptor
  • IL-38


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