BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determinate the efficacy of the human amniotic membrane plugs with sulfur hexafluoride versus human amniotic membrane plug with air as endotamponade to treat macular holes that failed to close after vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling. Multimodal imaging was focused to evaluate preoperative features and postoperative changes. METHODS: Prospective interventional comparative study. Twenty eyes of 20 patients affected with macular hole that failed to close were divided into 2 groups: 10 eyes received an amniotic membrane plug with 20% sulfur hexafluoride tamponade and 10 eyes received an amniotic membrane plug with air tamponade. All eyes were studied using multimodal advanced diagnostic tools, such as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, microperimetry, and adaptive optics to investigate the postoperative results. RESULTS: In both groups, all macular holes were found successfully closed after 12 months. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the SF6 group and 20/250 in air group. Final mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/63 in both groups. The superficial capillary plexus, studied using optical coherence tomography angiography, showed a statistically significant difference between the treated and the fellow eyes. Adaptive optics images revealed the presence of a photoreceptor cell mosaic in the area of the amniotic membrane plug. CONCLUSION: The human amniotic membrane combined with air endotamponade demonstrated its effectiveness to seal macular holes that failed to close after vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling. Advanced multimodal diagnostic imaging helped us to better understand the modifications associated with the use of the amniotic membrane in these cases.
- optical coherence tomography
- optical coherence tomography angiography
- retinal detachment
- rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
- scleral buckle