Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of high-risk (HR) HPV-positive and -negative women affected by high-grade cervical dysplasia.
Methods: This is a retrospective multi-institutional study. Medical records of consecutive patients with high-grade cervical dysplasia undergoing conization between 2010 and 2014 were retrieved. All patients included had at least 5 years of follow-up. A propensity-score matching was adopted in order to reduce the presence of confounding factors between groups. Kaplan-Meir and Cox hazard models were used to estimate 5-year outcomes.
Results: Overall, data of 2966 women, affected by high-grade cervical dysplasia were reviewed. The study population included 1478 (85%) and 260 (15%) women affected by HR-HPV-positive and HR-HPV-negative high-grade cervical dysplasia. The prevalence of CIN2 and CIN3 among the HR-HPV-positive and -negative cohort was similar (p = 0.315). Patients with HR-HPV-positive high-grade cervical dysplasia were at higher risk of 5-year recurrence (after primary conization) that HR-HPV-negative patients (p < 0.001, log-rank test). Via multivariate analysis, HR-HPV-negative women were at low risk of recurrence (HR: 1.69 (95%CI: 1.05, 4.80); p = 0.018, Cox Hazard model). A propensity-score matched comparison was carried out in order to reduce biases that are related to the retrospective study design. In comparison to HR-HPV-negative patients, thosewith HR-HPV-positive CIN3 was associate with a 8-fold increase in the risk of recurrence (p < 0.001, log-rank test).
Conclusions: HR-HPV-negative high-grade cervical dysplasia is not uncommon, accounting for 15% of our study population. Those patients experience more favorable outcomes than patients with documented HR-HPV infection(s). Further prospective studies are needed to corroborate our data.