GIV Noroviruses in Wastewaters and in Stool Specimens from Hospitalized Patients

M. Muscillo, M. Fratini, Rosalia Graffeo, Maurizio Sanguinetti, V. Martella, K. Y. Green, S. Della Libera, Giuseppina La Rosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)


Noroviruses (NoVs) are important human pathogens associated with foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis. These viruses are genetically highly heterogeneous, with more than forty genotypes within three genogroups (GI, GII, and GIV) identified in humans. However, the vast majority of human infections are associated with variants of a unique genotype, GII.4. Aside from these NoV strains of epidemiological relevance, NoV strains of genogroup GIV (Alphatron-like) are reported in a sporadic fashion and their overall prevalence in the community is unknown and this likely reflects the lack of specific diagnostic tools. We analyzed raw sewages collected from 32 wastewater treatment plants distributed throughout Italy (307 samples) and stool specimens collected from hospitalized patients with clinical signs of diarrhea of unknown etiology (285 samples). By using specific qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR assays, 21.8 % of the sewage samples and 3.2 % of the stool specimens tested positive for GIV NoVs. The number of genome copies in fecal samples ranged from 5.08 × 10(4) to 1.73× 10(6)/g of feces. Sequence analysis showed limited genetic variability in human GIV viruses. The presence of GIV NoV both in sewage and in clinical samples confirms that not only GI and GII NoVs but also GIV strains are circulating in humans. Monitoring of GIV NoV is recommended in order to understand the dynamics of circulation in human populations, environmental contamination, and potential health risks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • GIV


Dive into the research topics of 'GIV Noroviruses in Wastewaters and in Stool Specimens from Hospitalized Patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this