From Investigation to Intervention. Biofeedback and Neurofeedback Biomarkers in Sport

Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Francesca Pala, Valeria Milone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Sport neuroscience, lying at the intersection of applied neuroscience and sport psychology, includes, among its hot topics, the cognitive and affective processes and mechanisms that accompany the athletic performance. This chapter focuses on present applications of psychophysiological and electrophysiological techniques, such as biofeedback and neurofeedback, to support or empower performance in sports. In particular, you will find an introduction to the mechanisms of action of most relevant techniques in the field, neural-bodily-behavioral modulations that are targeted by different intervention opportunities, and technical application notes. We will discuss the value of self-awareness and of the ability to properly recognize bodily feedbacks, especially when athletes have to face competition, and the relevance of robust self-regulation skills to achieve maximum performance. Further, we will report a critical comparison between the efficacy and strong/weak points of bio/neurofeedback techniques and more traditional mental training techniques within the field of sport science. Finally, we will present and discuss different protocols applied to specific sports, such as baseball, golf, soccer, and gymnastics.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Sport Neuroscience and Psychophysiology
EditorsRA Carlstedt, M Balconi
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Biofeedback
  • Empowerment
  • Neuroenhancement
  • Neurofeedback
  • Peak Performance
  • Physical activity
  • Sport


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