Background: Respiratory complications of solid organ transplant (SOT) are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge when requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We aimed at describing this challenge in a prospective cohort of SOT recipients admitted in the ICU.
Methods: In this post hoc analysis of an international cohort of immunocompromised patients admitted in the ICU for an acute respiratory failure, we analyzed all SOT recipients and compared their severity, etiologic diagnosis, prognosis, and outcome according to the performance of an invasive diagnostic strategy (encompassing a fiber-optic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage), the type of transplanted organ, and the need of invasive ventilation at day 1.
Results: Among 1611 patients included in the primary study, 142 were SOT recipients (kidney, n = 73; 51.4%; lung, n = 33; 23.2%; liver, n = 29; 20.4%; heart, n = 7; 4.9%). Lung transplant recipients were younger than other SOT recipients, and severity did not differ across type of received organ. An invasive diagnostic strategy was more frequently performed in lung transplant recipients with a trend toward a higher rate of bacterial etiology in lung than kidney transplant recipients. Overall ICU survival of SOT recipients was 75.4%. Invasive diagnostic strategy, type of transplanted organ, and need of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 1 did not affect ICU prognosis.
Conclusions: ICU management of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in SOT recipients translated into a low ICU mortality rate, whatever the transplanted organ or the acute respiratory failure cause. The post-ICU burden of acute respiratory failure SOT recipients remains to be investigated.
- Etiologies, Outcomes, Acute Respiratory Failure