Efficacy of Multisensory Technology in Post-Stroke Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review

Alessandra Parisi, Francesca Bellinzona, Daniele Di Lernia, Claudia Repetto, Stefano De Gaspari, Giulia Brizzi, Giuseppe Riva, Cosimo Tuena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Post-stroke, in addition to sensorimotor signs and symptoms, could lead to cognitive deficits. Theories of embodiment stress the role of sensorimotor system and multisensory integration in sustaining high-order cognitive domains. Despite conventional post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation being effective, innovative technologies could overcome some limitations of standard interventions and exploit bodily information during cognitive rehabilitation. This systematic review aims to investigate whether ‘multisensory technologies’ compared to usual care treatment can be a viable alternative for cognitive rehabilitation. By applying PRISMA guidelines, we extracted data and assessed the bias of 10 studies that met the required criteria. We found that multisensory technologies were at least comparable to standard treatment but particularly effective for attention, spatial cognition, global cognition, and memory. Multisensory technologies consisted principally of virtual reality alone or combined with a motion tracking system. Multisensory technologies without motion tracking were more effective than standard procedures, whereas those with motion tracking showed balanced results for the two treatments. Limitations of the included studies regarded the population (e.g., no study on acute stroke), assessment (e.g., lack of multimodal/multisensory pre-post evaluation), and methodology (e.g., sample size, blinding bias). Recent advancements in technological development and metaverse open new opportunities to design embodied rehabilitative programs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • embodiment
  • virtual reality
  • post-stroke dementia
  • multisensory integration


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