Effect of Dapagliflozin on Myocardial Insulin Sensitivity and Perfusion: Rationale and Design of The DAPAHEART Trial

Teresa Mezza, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Filippo Crea, Alessandro Giordano, Andrea Giaccari, Lucia Leccisotti, Domenico D'Amario, Camilla Cocchi, Umberto Capece, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Patricia Iozzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been shown to have beneficial effects on various cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary prevention and in those with a high CV risk profile. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these CV benefits remain elusive and unexplained. The aim of the DAPAHEART study will be to demonstrate that treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors is associated with greater myocardial insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D, and to determine whether this improvement can be attributed to a decrease in whole-body (and tissue-specific) insulin resistance and to increased myocardial perfusion and/or glucose uptake. We will also determine whether there is an appreciable degree of improvement in myocardial-wall conditions subtended by affected and non-affected coronary vessels, and if this relates to changes in left ventricular function. Methods: The DAPAHEART trial will be a phase III, single-center, randomized, two-arm, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A cohort of 52 T2D patients with stable coronary artery disease (without any previous history of myocardial infarction, with or without previous percutaneous coronary intervention), with suboptimal glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7–8.5%) on their current standard of care anti-hyperglycemic regimen, will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to dapagliflozin or placebo. The primary outcome is to detect changes in myocardial glucose uptake from baseline to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. The main secondary outcome will be changes in myocardial blood flow, as measured by 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Other outcomes include cardiac function, glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver, brain and kidney, as assessed by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT imaging during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; pericardial, subcutaneous and visceral fat, and browning as observed on CT images during FDG PET-CT studies; systemic insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, glycemic control, urinary glucose output; and microbiota modification. Discussion: SGLT-2 inhibitors, in addition to their insulin-independent plasma glucose-lowering effect, are able to directly (substrate availability, fuel utilization, insulin sensitivity) as well as indirectly (cardiac after-load reduction, decreased risk factors for heart failure) affect myocardial functions. Our study will provide novel insights into how these drugs exert CV protection in a diabetic population. Trial registration: EudraCT No. 2016-003614-27; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03313752.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2101-2113
Number of pages13
JournalDiabetes Therapy
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Coronary flow reserve
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Myocardial blood flow
  • Myocardial dysfunction
  • Myocardial glucose uptake
  • Myocardial insulin sensitivity
  • PET
  • Precision medicine
  • SGLT-2

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