Disclosing Fast Detection Opportunities with Nanostructured Chemiresistor Gas Sensors Based on Metal Oxides, Carbon, and Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Michele Galvani, Sonia Freddi, Luigi Ermenegildo Sangaletti*

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the emergence of novel sensing materials and the increasing opportunities to address safety and life quality priorities of our society, gas sensing is experiencing an outstanding growth. Among the characteristics required to assess performances, the overall speed of response and recovery is adding to the well-established stability, selectivity, and sensitivity features. In this review, we focus on fast detection with chemiresistor gas sensors, focusing on both response time and recovery time that characterize their dynamical response. We consider three classes of sensing materials operating in a chemiresistor architecture, exposed to the most investigated pollutants, such as NH3 , NO2 , H2 S, H2 , ethanol, and acetone. Among sensing materials, we first selected nanostructured metal oxides, which are by far the most used chemiresistors and can provide a solid ground for performance improvement. Then, we selected nanostructured carbon sensing layers (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and reduced graphene), which represent a promising class of materials that can operate at room temperature and offer many possibilities to increase their sensitivities via functionalization, decoration, or blending with other nanostructured materials. Finally, transition metal dichalcogenides are presented as an emerging class of chemiresistive layers that bring what has been learned from graphene into a quite large portfolio of chemo-sensing platforms. For each class, studies since 2019 reporting on chemiresistors that display less than 10 s either in the response or in the recovery time are listed. We show that for many sensing layers, the sum of both response and recovery times is already below 10 s, making them promising devices for fast measurements to detect, e.g., sudden bursts of dangerous emissions in the environment, or to track the integrity of packaging during food processing on conveyor belts at pace with industrial production timescales.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)584-N/A
Number of pages25
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • sensors


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