Differentiation of saffron from four countries by multivariate analysis of Mid-infrared spectroscopy

Luana Maggi, E. Anastasaki, C. Kanakis, C. Pappas, L. Maggi, C. P. Del Campo, M. Carmona, G. L. Alonso, M. G. Polissiou

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56 Citations (Scopus)


Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis has been applied for the discrimination of 250 saffron samples from Greece (40 samples), Iran (87 samples), Italy (60 samples) and Spain (63 samples). The infrared spectra of saffron filament samples and their organic extracts were recorded. Principal component analysis was applied to different spectral regions. Then the principal components were used as variables in discriminant analysis. The best discriminatory approach was achieved in the spectral region 2000–700 cm-1. The spectral region responsible for the differentiation of Italian samples is in the region of carbonyl group around 1746 cm-1. The spectral region at around 1600 cm-1 and the band at 1670 cm-1 are responsible for the differentiation of samples from the remaining countries. From the original grouped cases, 93.6% were correctly classified. The correct classification rates for saffron samples from Greece, Iran, Italy and Spain were 90.0, 89.5, 96.7 and 98.4%, respectively. The combination of infrared spectroscopic technique with multivariate analysis is a rapid and ambient method to discriminate saffron samples in terms of geographical origin.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-577
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Food Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Discriminant analysis
  • FT-IR
  • Geographical differentiation
  • Principal component analysis
  • Saffron

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