Diagnostic issues in childhood and adult dystonia

Alberto Albanese, Nardo Nardocci, Stefania Lalli, Carlotta Canavese, Giovanna Zorzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: There is a general agreement among movement disorder specialists that the recognition of dystonia may be underestimated. In parallel, the growing interest and the improving knowledge of genetic and physiopathological aspects of dystonias require systematization. Areas covered: This review focuses on the phenomenology and etiology of pediatric and adult dystonias. It is designed to provide practical help for neurologists and neuropediatricians to make appropriate diagnoses and plan the therapeutical management of these disorders. The reader will get a systematization of the main etiological and diagnostic aspects that differentiate child-onset from adult-onset dystonias. The reader will also gain insights into specific treatments or cures. Expert opinion: Because dystonia can vary in clinical presentation and etiology, proper diagnosis and classification of these disorders are important in making therapeutic decisions. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-500
Number of pages18
JournalExpert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • DYT1
  • DYT11
  • DYT6
  • Dopa-responsive dystonia
  • Dystonia
  • Surgery
  • Therapy
  • Wilson disease


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