Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced gray-scale voiding urosonography (CE-VUS) and contrast-enhanced color Doppler voiding urosonography (CE-CDVUS) with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) to verify whether the use of color Doppler imaging improves the diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Methods. ln 74 patients, CE-VUS and CE-CDVUS were compared with VCUG, which was used as the gold standard. SHU 508 A (Levovist) was used as the echo-enhancing contrast agent. VUR was diagnosed if hyperechoic dots or color signals were visualized in the ureter on sonograms. VUR grading was based on morphologic and dynamic findings on CE-VUS and morphologic and color findings on CE-CDVUS. VCUG was performed conventionally, and grading by VCUG was in accordance with the international system of radiographic VUR grading. Patients who voided during 1 examination only (either CE-VUS and CE-CDVUS or VCUG) were excluded from the study. Agreement between the results of CE-VUS and VCUG and between those of CE-CDVUS and VCUG in diagnosing VUR was calculated by rc statistics. CE-VUS and CECDVUS were compared for diagnostic accuracy by the McNemar test. Results. The agreement between CE-VUS and Correspondence to: A. L. Valentini @ 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. VOL. 29, NO, 2, FEBRUARY 2OO1 VCUG in predicting VUR was 90% (rc score,0.77; p < 0.001). The agreement between CE-CDVUS and VCUG was 96% (rc score, 0.91; p < 0.001). CE-CDVUS showed a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than did CEVUS (96% versus 90% of cases correctly classified; McNemar X2 = 4; p < 0.05). This was mainly related to the lower number of false-negative results for grade I and grade ll VUR when CE-CDVUS was used. Conclusions. The use of color Doppler imaging significantly improves the accuracy of contrast voiding urosonography in the detection and grading of VUR.
- vesicoureteral reflux