Comparison of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and the "date rape" drug GHB: behavioral toxicology in the mouse model

Fabio De Giorgio, Arfè Raffaella, Bilel Sabrine, Tirri Michela, Frisoni Paolo, Serpelloni Giovanni, Neri Margherita, Boccuto Francesco, Bernardi Tatiana, Foti Federica, Marti Matteo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and γ-hydroxybutyrate acid (GHB) are synthetic solvents detected in the recreational drug market. GHB has sedative/hypnotic properties and is used for criminal purposes to compromise reaction ability and commit drug-facilitated sexual assaults and other crimes. NMP is a strong solubilizing solvent that has been used alone or mixed with GHB in case of abuse and robberies. The aim of this experimental study is to compare the acute pharmaco-toxicological effects of NMP and GHB on neurological signs (myoclonia, convulsions), sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and overall tactile) responses, righting reflex, thermoregulation, and motor activity (bar, drag, and accelerod test) in CD-1 male mice. Moreover, since cardiorespiratory depression is one of the main adverse effects related to GHB intake, we investigated the effect of NMP and GHB on cardiorespiratory changes (heart rate, breath rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse distension) in mice. The present study demonstrates that NMP inhibited sensorimotor and motor responses and induced cardiorespiratory depression, with a lower potency and efficacy compared to GHB. These results suggest that NMP can hardly be used alone as a substance to perpetrate sexual assault or robberies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPsychopharmacology
Volume2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
  • date drugs

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