Comparison of femoral fixation methods for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft: a mechanical analysis in porcine knees

Giuseppe Milano, Laura Deriu, Carlo Fabbriciani, Pd Mulas, F Ziranu

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22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the structural properties of femur-patellar tendon graft complex in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using different femoral fixation devices. Type of study is biomechanical testing. An ACL reconstruction was performed on 40 cadaver porcine knees, using patellar tendon (PT) graft. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the femoral fixation: interference absorbable screw (Group A), metallic setscrew (Group B), absorbable pins (Group C), and a combination of metallic setscrew and pin (Group D). Other ten knees were used as controls. On each sample, a cyclic loading test, then a load-to-failure test were performed. Elongation after 1,000 loading cycles, ultimate failure load, yield load, stiffness, deformation at the yield point, and mode of failure were recorded. Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey test were used to compare the differences between groups. The lowest mean elongation after 1,000 load cycles was observed for Group B (1.7 +/- 1.4 mm) and D (1.2 +/- 0.3 mm). Ultimate failure load of Group D (1,021.8 +/- 199.4 N) was comparable with that of normal ACL (1,091.2 +/- 193.3 N) and PT graft (1,140.6 +/- 285.7 N). All other groups were lower than the controls. For mean stiffness, all the groups, excepting for Group D (172.8 +/- 40.4 N/mm), were significantly lower than PT control group (216 +/- 78.4 N/mm). Mode of failure was graft pullout for Groups A and B, distal pin breakage for Group C, and midsubstance graft rupture in 80% of the cases for Group D. Only combined compression and suspension fixation did not show significantly different structural properties in comparison with normal ACL and PT graft. Furthermore, it showed no risk of graft pullout or hardware breakdown in comparison with other fixation devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)733-738
Number of pages6
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Volume15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament
  • Bone Screws
  • Materials Testing
  • Models, Animal
  • Patellar Ligament
  • Stress, Mechanical

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