Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities

Antonio Gallo*, Francesca Ghilardelli, Alberto Stanislao Atzori, Severino Zara, Barbara Novak, Johannes Faas, Francesco Fancello

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites. Altersetin was detected in clusters 1, 3, and 5. Rugulusovin or brevianamide F were detected in several samples, with the highest concentration in cluster 3. Emodin was detected in more than 50.0% of samples of clusters 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Kojic acid occurred mainly in clusters 1 and 2 at very low concentrations. Regarding Fusarium mycotoxins, high occurrences were observed for FB3, FB4, FA1, whereas the average concentrations of FB6 and FA2 were lower than 12.4 µg/kg dry matter. Emerging Fusarium-produced mycotoxins, such as siccanol, moniliformin, equisetin, epiequisetin and bikaverin were detected in the majority of analyzed corn silages. Pestalotin, oxaline, phenopirrozin and questiomycin A were detected at high incidences. Concluding, this work highlighted that corn silages could be contaminated by a high number of regulated and emerging mycotoxins.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-232
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bacteria
  • Fermentation
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Storage
  • Fungi
  • Microbiota
  • Mycotoxins
  • Secondary Metabolism
  • Zea mays
  • dairy cow
  • forage
  • milk
  • mold


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