Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection in the critically ill: an expert statement

Massimo Antonelli, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Sole Vallecoccia, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, George Dimopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI) represents a worrisome condition, often underestimated, with severe clinical presentations, frequently requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The aim of the present expert statement was to give an overview of the management of CDI in critically ill patients, for whom CDI represents a redoubtable problem, in large part related to the use and abuse of antibiotics. The available knowledge about pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment concerning critical care patients affected by CDI has been reviewed, even though most of the existing information come from studies performed outside the ICU and the evidence on several issues in this specific context is scarce. The adoption of potential preventive and therapeutic strategies aimed to stem the phenomenon were discussed, including the faecal microbiota transplantation. This possibility could represent a highly interesting option in critically ill patients, but current evidence is limited and future well designed studies are needed. A special insight on the specific challenges that the ICU physicians may face caring for the critically ill patients with CDI was also proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-224-224
JournalIntensive Care Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Burden of Clostridioides difficile infection
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Critically ill patients
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation
  • Treatment


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