Classification of general absolute planes by quasi-ends

Helmut Karzel, Silvia Pianta, Mahfouz Rostamzadeh, Sayed-Ghahreman Taherian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


General (i.e. including non-continuous and non-Archimedean) absolute planes have been classified in different ways, e.g. by using Lambert–Saccheri quadrangles (cf. Greenberg, J Geom 12/1:45-64, 1979; Hartshorne, Geometry; Euclid and beyond, Springer, Berlin, 2000; Karzel and Marchi, Le Matematiche LXI:27–36, 2006; Rostamzadeh and Taherian, Results Math 63:171–182, 2013) or coordinate systems (cf. Pejas, Math Ann 143:212–235, 1961 and, for planes over Euclidean fields, Greenberg, J Geom 12/1:45-64, 1979). Here we consider the notion of quasi-end, a pencil determined by two lines which neither intersect nor have a common perpendicular (an ideal point of Greenberg, J Geom 12/1:45-64, 1979). The cardinality ω of the quasi-ends which are incident with a line is the same for all lines hence it is an invariant ω_A of the plane A and can be used to classify absolute planes. We consider the case ω_A=0 and, for ω_A≥2 (it cannot be 1) we prove that in the singular case ω_A must be infinite. Finally we prove that for hyperbolic planes, ends and quasi-ends are the same, so ω_A=2 .
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)863-872
Number of pages10
JournalAequationes Mathematicae
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • absolute plane
  • quasi-end


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