Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is an inert ceramic with excellent physical properties so as to be called “ceramic steel.” Its first use in the orthopedics dates back to 1969 and since then has been continuously increasing in the construction of prosthetic implants. In recent years its use, for a good osseointegration and its esthetic characteristics, has increased in dentistry. In this chapter the authors analyzed the “aging” of zirconia and its biocompatibility, for example, the ability not to induce immune or adverse responses in the host organism. Specifically they evaluated the cellular response of zirconia in vitro and in vivo. The lack of carcinogenicity and locality and systemic toxicity combined with the strength of the material and its ability to promote osseointegration make this material an ideal coating of prosthetic implants. However, further studies are needed to improve the biomedical use of zirconia to improve surface configurations and prevent material aging.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility
EditorsM Mozafari
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Zirconia
  • aging of zirconia
  • biocompatibility of zirconia
  • dental
  • osseointegration
  • prosthetic
  • surface cellular adhesion
  • toxicity


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