Cavernous venous malformation (cavernous hemangioma) of the orbit: Current concepts and a review of the literature

Gustavo Savino, Luigi Calandriello, Gabriela Grimaldi, Gianluigi Petrone, Mario Rigante, Sergio Petroni, Monica Riso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)


The cavernous venous malformation of the orbit, previously called cavernous hemangioma, is the most common primary orbital lesion of adults. Cavernous venous malformation occurs more often in women and typically presents in the fourth and fifth decades of life. It is a benign vascular malformation characterized by a well-defined capsule and numerous large vascular channels. The most common sign of cavernous venous malformation is progressive axial proptosis from the preferential involvement of the intraconal orbital space. Optic nerve damage and other signs of orbital pathology may be present, with a variable degree of visual impairment. The combination of ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging leads to an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Surgical and nonsurgical treatments are required in case of symptomatic lesions, with a characteristic multidisciplinary management influencing optimal outcome. Orbitotomy represents the traditional surgical approach. Recently, the endoscopic transnasal approach to the orbital cavity has gained interest, representing a feasible and safe, less-invasive surgical technique for the management of cavernous venous malformation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-403
Number of pages11
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Endoscopic transnasal surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orbital angioma
  • Orbital cavernous hemangioma
  • Orbital cavernous venous malformations
  • Orbital surgery
  • Orbitotomy


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