Benchmarking of carbon footprint data from the Italian wine sector: A comprehensive and extended analysis

Daniele D'Ammaro, Ettore Capri, Lucrezia Lamastra, Fiamma Valentino, Stefania Grillo, Emanuela Fiorini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The interest in sustainability, within the wine sector, is growing simultaneously with the awareness of the environmental impacts on climate change generated by the sector itself. In this context, environmental methodologies need to be applied: Carbon Footprint of a Product (CFP) is a quantitative expression of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions that plays an influent role in emission management and evaluation of mitigation measures over the full life cycle of a product. Moreover, CFP application in the agri-food sector remains scarce due to complex, expensive, and difficult data collection. This paper aims to determine the main factors that contribute to the CFP of 33 Italian wines from 16 wineries and compare and evaluate the results obtained using all the inventory data or results obtained using a simplified model with fewer inputs. The results per Function Unit (0.75/ L of wine) have been obtained using a unique methodology. Considering system boundaries from cradle to grave, at 90% confidence interval, CFP results ranged between 0.899 kg CO2 eq./FU and 1.882 kg CO2 eq./FU. The study underlines that most of the impacts can be related to few inventory data, in fact the main contributors of GHGs emissions are: glass bottle (29%), electricity used in the winery stage (14%), transport and distribution of the final product (13%), heat used in the winery phase (9%) and fossil fuels used in vineyard (8%). The results can be helpful to support the development of a simplified CFP and to obtain a benchmark for the CFP of the Italian wine sector. Furthermore, the present study can help businesses, policy makers and consumers in making decisions that lead to a better environmental outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)N/A-N/A
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Inventory data
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Simplified carbon footprint
  • Sustainability
  • Wine


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