An ecological measure to screen executive functioning in MS: the Picture Interpretation Test (PIT) 360°

Olivia Realdon, Silvia Serino, Federica Savazzi, Federica Antonia Maria Savazzi, Federica Rossetto, Pietro Cipresso, Thomas D. Parsons, Giacomo Cappellini, Fabrizia Mantovani, Laura Mendozzi, Raffaello Nemni, Giuseppe Riva, Francesca Baglio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Executive functions are crucial for performance of everyday activities. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), executive dysfunctions can be apparent from the early onset of the disease. Technology-based time-efficient and resource-saving tools for early evaluation of executive functions using an ecological approach are needed to assess functional performance in real-life. The aim was to compare the efficiency of the Picture Interpretation Test 360° (PIT 360°) with traditional measures on executive dysfunction in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) and Healthy Controls (HC). Participants were 31 patients with Relapsing-Remitting MS (mean age = 44.323 ± 13.149; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale = 2) and 39 HC (mean age = 39.538 ± 15.728). All were tested with standard neuropsychological tests of executive functions, PIT 360°, and measures of user experience. While standard neuropsychological tests failed to differentiate between PwMS and HC group, the PIT 360° was successful in detecting executive dysfunction in PwMS. All participants reported the PIT 360° to be an engaging tool and endorsed positive reactions to their experience. Overall, the PIT 360° is a quick, sensitive, and ecological tool that captures real-world executive dysfunction in PwMS. This engaging measure is sensitive for the detection of executive deficits since the early phases of the disease.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • ecological measure, executive functioning


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