A survey of eating styles in eight countries: Examining restrained, emotional, intuitive eating and their correlates

Charlotte H. Markey, Esben Strodl, Annie Aimé, Marita Mccabe, Rachel Rodgers, Alvaro Sicilia, Gianluca Lo Coco, Jacinthe Dion, David Mellor, Giada Pietrabissa, Salvatore Gullo, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Michel Probst, Christophe Maïano, Catherine Bégin, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Marie-Eve Blackburn, Marie L. Caltabiano, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Gianluca CastelnuovoNaomi Hayami-Chisuwa, Qiqiang He, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction Restrained, emotional and intuitive eating were examined in relation to each other and as correlates of participants' weight status, body image and self-esteem. In some past research, restrained and emotional eating have been associated with higher weight status and poorer mental health, while intuitive eating is more frequently linked to lower weight status and more positive well-being. However, these eating styles have rarely been examined together and never in a large cross-country sample. Method Six-thousand two-hundred and seventy-two (6272) emerging adults (M age = 21.54 years, SD = 3.13) completed scales from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire, the Intuitive Eating Scale-2, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and provided weight and height information that was used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Participants resided in Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Italy, Japan, Spain and the United States and provided information using an online survey. Results Path analyses for the entire sample revealed significant pathways between higher intuitive eating and higher body satisfaction and self-esteem, and lower BMIs among participants. Higher levels of restrained and emotional eating were associated with lower body satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher BMIs among participants. Minor cross-country differences were evident in these patterns of relations, but intuitive eating emerged as a consistent predictor across countries. Conclusion Overall, findings suggest that efforts should be made to increase intuitive eating among emerging adults and to support individual and macrolevel interventions to decrease restrained and emotional eating behaviours.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)N/A-N/A
JournalBritish Journal of Health Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • BMI
  • body satisfaction
  • cross-country research
  • emerging adults
  • emotional eating
  • intuitive eating
  • restrained eating
  • self-esteem


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